Fes or  Fez is the 2nd biggest city in Morocco located in  in northern central Morocco and it is the capital of the Fès-Meknès administrative state. With 1.22 million habitant (2020). Fez is located at a junction connecting the most interesting places to visit such as Sahara desert, Tangier,Casablanca, Rabat, Marrakech. Meknes…. Fez was set up under the ruling of al iddrssyin around eighth and ninth century. It originally comprised of the autonomous and competing arrangement. Consecutive waves of mostly north Africans immigrants from neighbouring countries in addition to Spain.  Behind the undoing of the Idrissi ancestry, other dynasties appear and disappear till the eleventh century when youssef Ben Tachfin king of almoravids unified the two communities into what are now old Medina (fes Elbali) quarters. Under Berber Almoravid ruling, Fez earned recognition for religious grant and commercial activity. And reached its top in the  era of Mirinids between 13th-15th centuries, recovering its ranking as political and spiritual capital. Many mosques and relegious Madrassas (Schools) were builded, some still survive nowadays, although other establishment were rebuilded. These constructions are included among the features of Rifs and Berber architectural style. The Berber king Yakoub el Mansour founded the royal administration district  the new part of fez In 1276, where the royal palace exist now, to which substantial gardens  that recently planted. In the same time Jewish habitant of the city increased and their quarter called Mellah was constructed on the south side of this new part of the city.

After the topple of the Marinids ancestry, Fez mainly decreased and afterwards participate with Marrakesh for cultural and political effects, but endure as the capital till 1912 including the wattasids rule era.

nowadays, Fez comprise of two old big parts, Fes Elbli olso known as old Medina and Fes El Jadid which is the new modern part of Fes, founded during the French colonization, but the old Part of the city which is known as the old Medina is recognized as a world heritage site since 1981, and has many monuments inside such as:

  • Qaraouyine University: which was established in 859 and is thought about to be the oldest steadly operating centre of higher education in the globe.
  • Shouwara Tannery: is considered to be one of the oldest tanneries in the earth and it the largest one in Morocco from the 11th century…
  • Bounania Medrassa: is a scriptural Muslim college. Constructed in fourteenth century by the ruler bou anan, it has imposingly large gates and a splendid hand carved decorated walls….
  • Dar Lmakhzen: the Fes royal palace,its not open to the public but it deserve to be seen from the outside, it has a dramatic sight, with enormous gates made of gold and copper….
  • Mellah: is a Jewish neighbourhood where more than 250,000 Jews live. Before alot of them leave to live in Israel…


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